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Direct & Indirect Student Services

All of the required activities and services of a comprehensive school counseling Service are grouped into four interactive Service components: Instruction, Appraisal & Advisement, Counseling, and Referrals, Consultation, Collaboration. Some of these services are delivered directly with students and others are delivered indirectly on behalf of students. Direct services are interactions between school counselors and students. Indirect Student Services are interactions with others, on behalf of the student, including referrals for additional assistance, consultation and collaboration with parents, teachers, other educators and community organizations. It also includes management activities and services required to support a district/supervisory union’s comprehensive school counseling Service, as well as the other educational Services of a district/supervisory union. The Service components are: 

Direct Student Services 


Emphasis has been placed on the work school counselors do to teach the school counseling curriculum focused through the lens of the ASCA Mindsets & Behaviors. Instruction of the school counseling curriculum occurs in the classroom, large and small groups and individually. 

Appraisal & Advisement

Emphasis has been placed on the processes where school counselors: 

  • work with students to analyze and assess their abilities, interests, skills and achievement and 
  • make recommendations based on the appraisal of tests, inventories and other data to help students make decisions about their future. 


Emphasis has been placed on the direct student service of counseling in individual or small-group settings. Crisis response has been reclassified as an indirect student as it is defined by collaborating with adults to provide support in the aftermath of a crisis. 

Indirect Student Services 

Referrals, Consultation, Collaboration

Includes the management and evaluation activities and services required to effectively support a district/supervisory union or building a comprehensive school counseling Service. Consultation is an interactive process that school counselors provide to help parents/guardians, teachers, and administrators address the social/emotional, academic and career needs of students. When brief counseling is not sufficient to address the needs of the student, the school counselor may suggest to parents that a referral to an outside practitioner and/or agency for extended counseling services may be appropriate. 

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